In paramagnetic material magnetic dipoles already exist due to spin of unpaired electron in an atom. In paramagnetic material magnetic dipoles are randomly oriented but when magnetic field is applied such dipoles align parallel to external magnetic field.                              Due to positive susceptibility the flux density inside the paramagnetic material increases. In a paramagnetic material […]


Diamagnetic Material The materials that allow flow of magnetic field through them are called as Magnetic Materials. In Diamagnetic material there is no magnetism in the absence of external magnetic field. (Shown in fig. 1) When magnetic field is applied dipoles are induced and they orient in a direction opposite to external magnetic field. (As […]


Conducting Material Electrical Carbon Properties This material is made from graphite and other form of carbon. Conductivity of Carbon is less than Copper (Cu) and Aluminum (Al) but its surface is smoother so it is used to make brushes in a Electrical Machine. Carbon brushes are graphited or heat treated to increase conductivity and reduce […]


Conducting Material (Cu vs Al) •Electrically Conducting Material :- This materials carry current in an electrical machine. •Highly Conducting Material :- Copper, Aluminum, Gold, Silver. •Highly resistive material:- Alloys (heating elements)             Now,    R=Ro(1+αΔT) Where α= temperature coefficient of resistance ΔT= Change in temperature of per degree Celsius ΔT= Change in temperature of per degree […]


•Biodiversity is an abbreviation of biological diversity. The development of complex spectrum of life on earth has taken millions of years. Existence of this variety of living organisms is necessary for the balanced functioning of the ecosystems. •The term biodiversity was coined by WALTER G. ROSEN   in 1985 •UNEP defined biodiversity as the variety […]


Solar power  Is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination. Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and solar tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic cells convert light into an electric current using the photovoltaic effect. What is Photovoltaic cell and how does it work? A Solar Cell, or Photovoltaic cell, is an […]


India is the world’s third largest producer and third largest consumer of electricity. The national electric grid in India has an installed capacity of 375.32 GW as of 31 December 2020. Renewable power plants, which also include large hydroelectric plants, constitute 36.17% of India’s total installed capacity. During the 2019-20 fiscal year, the gross electricity […]


In this article, we will discuss about the basics of a Single Phase Full Bridge Voltage Source Inverter such as its working using diagram, waveforms for various loads (R, L, and RL) and in the last the mathematical analysis using the Fourier series. Diode D1,D2,D3 and D4 are called feedback diodes and they functions only when the load is other […]


Transfers power from DC Circuit to another AC Circuit at required voltage and required frequency. APPLICATIONS OF INVERTER The applications areas of inverters such as:- •Adjustable-speed ac motor drives •Uninterrupted power supplies (UPS) •Running appliances of ac used in an automobile battery. •power transmission industry such as reactive power controllers and adaptive power filters TYPES […]